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Lithium thionyl chloride batteries are available in cylindrical and thin sheet types. The typical internal structure of each type of battery is shown in the figure:



• Anode: The anode is composed of a lithium metal sheet (this type of lithium is used exclusively for batteries). The lithium metal sheet presses against the inner wall of the battery case, which provides a safe and reliable power connection for mechanical properties.。

• Isolation layer: The isolation layer installed between the anode and the cathode can prevent internal short-circuiting while allowing free movement of ions between the electrodes. It is made of special glass fiber, and it is easy to maintain compatibility with chemical systems during long-term storage and continuous use.。

• Cathode: The cathode is made of high-permeability carbon powder containing polytetrafluoroethylene. When the circuits are connected, the cathode decay of thionyl chloride occurs at the cathode surface. The porosity of the carbon gives it a surface area that is compatible with the current capacity of the battery。

• Electrolyte: The electrolyte solution is basically a solution made of a mixture of thionyl chloride and lithium aluminum tetrachloride. It has a very high ionic conductivity over the entire temperature range, and it produces negligible mass transfer losses in electrochemical systems. These advantages give lithium thionyl chloride batteries significant voltage stability. At the same time it has a low freezing point (-105 °C) and a relatively high boiling point (>79 °C), which makes the battery work over a wide temperature range.。

• Collector Bars: Metal-collector rods allow the battery current to be energized between the porous carbon cathode and the anode terminal。

• Battery shell and cover: The battery shell and cover are made of cold-rolled nickel steel sheet. This housing is specially designed and manufactured to withstand the squeezing of various types of machinery that can occur under a variety of predictable environmental conditions.。

• Hermetically sealed: The positive terminal of the lithium battery is insulated with the battery cover with a glass metal seal. The battery cover is the negative terminal of the battery. The “glass to metal” seal is manufactured using the pressure tight technology. In addition, the battery cover is welded to the battery case using a laser welding process. This allows the battery to have a very high degree of tightness and mechanical integrity, so that the battery has a very long shelf life。

All lithium batteries are based on the same electrochemical system. When the current is flowing, the chemical reaction is:

On the anode side:4Li → 4Li + +4e -

On the cathode side:2SOCl 2 → SO 2 + S +4Cl - +4e -(On the surface of carbon)

Overall chemical reaction:4Li +2SOCl 2 → 4LiCl + S + SO 2

Most of the SO2 formed during discharge of the cell is dissolved in the electrolyte and the cathode. This explains why the battery generates low internal pressure before, during, and after normal discharge.

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