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Battery performance

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1、Standard Technology Battery

Once the battery is used, its voltage will be reduced compared to the open circuit voltage, and then it will reach the level of stable operation. This is a performance of the discharge current. When the current is low, the battery voltage stabilizes instantly. However, when the current value is high, a transition period may be required to reach a stable voltage. During this transition period, the initial voltage will fall below the step voltage and then recover.。

The three curves in Figure 1.1.1 show the initial discharge voltage。

• Curve A: The initial voltage stabilizes immediately at the step voltage level. This situation is common for standard batteries that are backed up in memory (low discharge current at this time)。

• Curve B: In the transition period, the initial voltage drops below the step voltage, but the minimum voltage is higher than the cut-off voltage, and the cut-off voltage is generally between 2.5 V and 3.0 V. This situation is related to the fact that some devices require medium-strength discharge currents. This ensures that at an acceptable level, a sustained voltage is obtained.。

• Curve C: During the transition, the initial voltage drops below the step voltage. This is related to high current devices。

In curve C, the time required to return to the cutoff voltage is the lag time, and the lowest voltage reached is the instantaneous minimum voltage (TMV). In this specific example, the TMV is slightly lower than 2.5 volts and the delay time is related to the use of a cut-off voltage of 2.6 volts.。

The voltage lag is due to the formation of a layer of LiCl passivation film on the lithium surface, which is why these batteries can maintain their power for a long period of time. As the storage time increases and the temperature increases, the thickness of the passivation film also increases. This film prevents thionyl chloride from reacting with lithium metal and also restricts the flow of lithium ions from the metal surface to the electrolyte. This causes the initial value of the internal resistance of the battery to be very high and also reduces the operating voltage.。

Volt

瞬时电压曲线 -标准技术电池

Figure 1.1.1 Instantaneous Voltage Curve - Standard Technology Battery


However, once the battery begins to discharge, the thickness of the passivation film gradually decreases, the resistance returns to a stable value, and the battery reaches its step voltage.。

For relatively low and medium intensity discharge currents, the ionic conductivity of the LiCl film is sufficient to maintain a relatively free flow of lithium ions. If the current is higher, the membrane begins to limit the ion flow。

When the thickness of the passivation film is reduced, as long as the circuit is in a disconnected state for a long period of time, its thickness will increase again. In this way, if the continuous discharge is stopped, even if it is discharged again after 1 or 2 months, the battery voltage will almost instantly return to the level of the step voltage. However, if the dead time is longer, the passivation layer will continue to thicken, and the resulting instantaneous minimum voltage (TMV) will tend to return to its original value.


2、XTRA TM battery

In general, all the different battery technologies are used in the situation described in 3.1.1. However, the XTRATM technology allows the battery to dramatically increase its instantaneous minimum voltage (TMV)。

标准技术和 XTRA TM 技术的瞬时状况( TMV )的对比

Figure 1.1.2 Comparison of transient conditions (TMV) between standard technology and XTRA TM technology

Figure 1.1.2 shows the surface resistivity of XTRATM cells and standard cells at room temperature as a function of storage time


XTRA TM 电池表面膜和标准电池表面膜的电阻率与在室温下的储存期

Standard Battery XTRA TM Battery Storage Period (Month)

Figure 1.1.2 XTRA TM Cell Surface Film and Standard Cell Surface Film Resistivity vs. Storage at Room Temperature


The XTRATM battery has greatly improved both in the instantaneous minimum voltage and in the voltage lag time, which is achieved by using XTRATM batteries with different characteristics of the ion-conducting membrane on the lithium surface. It can be observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that the surface film of the XTRATM battery has a denser and more compact structure than the surface film on a standard battery. The XTRA TM battery has this unique feature because its resistance is an order of magnitude lower than the standard battery of the same period.



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