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Battery Introduction

Primary Battery
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The primary battery (一次电池即原电池), which is different from the rechargeable battery, is a battery that can not be recharged to recover after discharge, also known as a dry battery.

Main components: positive and negative electrodes, electrolytes, containers and separators



Zinc manganese dry battery

Cathode material: MnO2, graphite rod

Anode material: Zinc sheet electrolyte: NH4Cl, ZnCl2 and starch paste  

General zinc-manganese dry battery

General zinc-manganese dry battery

Battery symbol can be expressed as

(-) Zn|ZnCl2、NH4Cl(Paste)(+)‖MnO2|C(Graphite)

Negative electrode:Zn-2e=Zn2+

Positive electrode:2MnO2+2NH4++2e=Mn2O3+2NH3+H2O

Total response:Zn+2MnO2+2NH4+= Zn2++Mn2O3+2NH3+H2O

The electromotive force of zinc-manganese dry batteries is 1.5V. Because the generated NH3 gas is adsorbed by graphite, the electromotive force decreases rapidly. If high-conductivity paste KOH is used instead of NH4Cl, the cathode material is changed to a steel cylinder, and the MnO2 layer is close to the steel cylinder, which constitutes an alkaline zinc-manganese battery. Since the battery reaction produces no gas, the internal resistance is low and the electromotive force is 1.5V. relatively stable。

A dry battery is a primary battery in a chemical power source. It is a disposable battery. It uses a carbon rod as a positive electrode and a zinc tube as a negative electrode to convert chemical energy into an external circuit for supplying electrical energy. In the chemical reaction, since zinc is more active than manganese, zinc loses electrons and is oxidized, and manganese is reduced by electrons.

General zinc-manganese dry batteries are one of the upgrading products of civilian batteries and are now generally replaced by alkaline Zn-Mn batteries with better performance.



The principle of alkaline manganese dry batteries and zinc-manganese dry batteries is the same. The alkaline drum serves as a negative electrode. The positive electrode material is a mixed paste consisting of manganese dioxide powder, ammonium chloride and carbon black. A carbon rod is inserted in the positive electrode material as a conductor for drawing current. Between the positive and negative electrodes there is a layer of reinforced release paper, the paper is impregnated with an electrolyte solution containing ammonium chloride, the upper part of the metal base is sealed。

From the structural point of view, the secondary battery undergoes reversible changes in the volume and structure of the electrode during discharge, while the inside of the primary battery is much simpler because it does not need to adjust these reversible changes.

The specific capacity and volumetric capacity of primary batteries are greater than those of ordinary rechargeable batteries, but the internal resistance is much larger than that of secondary batteries, so the load capacity is low.


The self-discharge of a primary battery is much smaller than that of a secondary battery. A battery can only be discharged once. For example, alkaline batteries and carbon batteries fall into this category. The secondary batteries can be used repeatedly.

Secondary batteries are more environmentally friendly than primary batteries. Once the battery is used, it must be discarded. The rechargeable battery can be used repeatedly. The next-generation rechargeable battery that meets the national standard can be used more than 1,000 times, which means that the waste generated by the rechargeable battery is less than 1/1000 of the battery. The superiority of secondary batteries is obvious from the point of view of reducing waste, or from the perspective of resource utilization and economics.

Primary battery internal resistance large secondary battery, its large current discharge performance is not as good as secondary batteries。

In a small current, intermittent discharge conditions, the primary battery mass specific capacity is greater than ordinary secondary batteries, but when the discharge current is greater than 800mAh, the primary battery capacity advantage will be significantly reduced。

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